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what is excimer laser

12.01.2021, 5:37

The term “excimer” is an abbreviation of the expression excited dimer, and denotes a molecule RH* in the excited state, E1, which does not exist in the ground state, E0 (Fig. High energy light with ultraviolet can create a non-uniform coverage or sometimes negative reaction on the skin. From: Introduction to Laser Spectroscopy, 2005, Halina Abramczyk, in Introduction to Laser Spectroscopy, 2005. Schedule your consultation To schedule an appointment for an excimer laser treatment in Phoenix, AZ, call our office at (480)-610-6366 . One of the mirror is fully reflecting mirror and the other is partially transmitting mirror. The beam is in the ultraviolet spectrum and penetrates tissues only a small distance; it breaks chemical bonds instead of generating heat to destroy tissue. In commercially available lasers the pressure vessel is not sealed off, and is therefore connected to gas bottles that replenish the gases periodically, usually after 103–106 pulses, once the laser performance deteriorates. Yes Excimer laser treat vitiligo. Fibers: Present optical fibers cannot transmit the shorter wavelengths (λ < 300 nm) emitted by excimer lasers. When the surface of the cornea is reshaped in the right way, it allows light rays to focus properly onto the retina for clear vision. The arrangement is enclosed in a resonant cavity formed by two planes and parallel mirrors M1 and M2. They are particularly significant in applications such as metrology and systems alignment. Excimer laser or Exciplex laser is a type of laser that uses ultraviolet light to produce microelectronic devices, eye surgery laser, semiconductor integrated circuits, and micro-machines. They always operate in the pulsed mode with short pulses (10–100 ns). 5.1). The excimer laser is the powerful light source in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Excimer laser is the type of molecular laser – Isolated atoms and ions in ionic laser have discrete energy levels. Several excimer lasers are based on different gases. Often used for marking applications. However, molecules have energy bands. Population inversion is achieved to amplify the signal by ( or Photon ) stimulated emission. The characteristics of typical excimer gases are presented in Table 4.3. Figure 1. A monitor beam, which is produced by a tungsten light source (Newport 780) and then passed through a quartz photolysis cuvette (Spectrocell Inc., 160 µL) at right angles to the laser beam, giving a path length for both beams of 2 mm. The laser gas mixture is usually excited by a fast electric discharge lasting only a few tens of nanoseconds. These technical improvements have extended to 108 pulses the lifetime between exchanges of laser gas. Because the laser light never touches the surrounding skin, it reduces the risk of UV radiation exposure. The mixture is confined in a pressure vessel, typically at a pressure of 3500–5000 millibars, and is usually excited by a fast electric discharge lasting a few tens of nanoseconds. This type of laser has a number of applications, with one of the most famous being use in opthalmologic procedures like LASIK eye surgery. ), Fiberoptic Laser Systems for Diagnostics and Therapy, Hyaluronan in the Treatment of Ocular Surface Disorders, Ian A. Watson, Duncan E.S. Pulse energies measure up to a joule at a repetition rate of up to 300 Hz and average power output is up to tens of watts. In all cases, the lasers emit rather short pulses (of 10–100 nsec) with relatively high pulse energy. The best of all excimer lasers for its combination of power and lasing efficiency: used for machining polymers. The upper or excited energy level is populated by a three-body collision involving noble gas positive ion, halogen negative ions, and a buffer gas like Helium or Neon. It consists of a tube formed by two electrodes connected to the discharge voltage source. The term excimer is the short form of excited dimer means a molecule formed by combining two identical noble gas ( i.e. The Excimer laser is a cool laser, which means that it does not heat up the surrounding air or surfaces. 230 by permission of the American Association for the Advancement of Science), The laser ablative photodecomposition has found applications for microlithography233 and for cutting and drilling of polymeric materials.234. Some of the procedures depicted in this section may be described with the help of a flowchart, as mentioned in Section 9.12. Excimer lasers emitting in the deep ultraviolet region currently dominate the lithography industry—serving to draw patterns, marks, and trade codes on ceramics, glass, plastic, and metal. Epithelial wounds may be created mechanically or chemically; of import and technique-dependent is whether the epithelial basement membrane is removed (Pfister, 1975; Kuwabara et al., 1976; Haik and Zimny, 1971). Population inversion in Excimer laser is achieved by electric discharge pumping. Because the fibers may be damaged by the high power density, it has been found that it is easier to transmit 100-nsec pulses of lower-peak power than 10-nsec pulses of higher-peak power and longer-pulse excimer lasers have been built for this purpose. The main characteristics of the active medium are as follows: it is an external source of energy that provides the necessary energy to the active medium to produce a state of population inversion essential for lasing action. These electron collides with the gas atom or gain medium and excite their atom to higher energy levels or excited energy levels. What industry was the Excimer laser first used? WHAT IS EXCIMER LASER? Examples of excimers laser are Ar* 2 Kr* 2 Xe* 2. 63% of the laser energy is absorbed within a distance 1/α and 90% of the energy within a distance of 2.3/α. Because absorption in tissue is high at all UV wavelengths, these lasers are potentially useful in surgery. The lasers need technical service every few months. Because of their cold ablation and short wavelength, an excimer laser is used for countless applications. UV irradiation can kill bacteria extremely efficiently, requiring low energy densities compared with some other forms of radiation. This allows for the treatment areas to receive more energy without exposing the unaffected areas of the body. This characteristic is depending on HA physical properties, which are responsible for a photoablation rate of HA similar to that of the corneal tissue. The laser output is taken out through the partially transmitting mirror which is also called output coupler mirror. The ultraviolet light is absorbed by the upper layer of the surface that it contacts. The excimer laser is a gentle, cold-beam laser uniquely suited to the task of refractive corneal surgery. Excimer lasers emitting in the deep ultraviolet region currently dominate the lithography industry—serving to draw patterns, marks, and trade codes on ceramics, glass, plastic, and metal. Excimer lasers are used to treat mild-to-moderate psoriasis. 4.21. X-ray fluoroscopic images of a blocked artery before and after laser angioplasty are shown in Fig. Thus, a discrete high energy pulse of duration 10 ns to several nanoseconds in the ultraviolet region (UV) is produced. The excimer laser used for psoriasis emits a strong UVB light at 308nm. Likewise, studies of corneal epithelial healing and attempts to modulate the same have extensively utilized this species. The active medium is placed between these two electrodes. The Excimer laser is an ultraviolet laser which vaporizes the corneal tissues without much release of heat. The laser is highly customizable, enabling providers to administer the exact level of UV wavelengths needed by each individual patient. Laser flash photolysis apparatus (for details see the text). Excimer laser therapy is one type of treatment that helps get rid of the red patches by exposing them to targeted ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. If the repetition rate is 100 Hz (100 pulses/sec), the laser pulses vaporize 100 × 0.005 = 0.5 cm/sec. Krypton- and argon-fluoride (KrF and ArF) lasers used in far-UV microlithography facilitates chip design, generating circuit features smaller than 0.18 μm. Argon, Krypton, Xenon ) atom in the excited state. M. Popov, and V. A. Danilychev invented the excimer laser in 1970 at Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow. The result is a degradation of the structure of the polymeric solid by the photons and the expulsion of molecular fragments at supersonic velocities (Figure 6). The Excimer is a powerful form of phototherapy that delivers a strong dosage of monochromatic UVB light to targeted affected areas of the skin, while leaving healthy skin tissue unaffected. Excimer is a term used today to describe a family of lasers with similar output characteristics, in that they all emit powerful pulses lasting nanoseconds or tens of nanoseconds, at wavelengths in or near the ultraviolet, and the lasing medium is a diatomic molecule, or dimer, in which the component atoms are bound in the excited state but not in the ground state. Attention has focused on the healing of corneoscleral filtration wounds used to manage glaucoma with the aim of exploring methods, primarily pharmacological, to keep them open and filtering (Gressel et al., 1984; Miller et al., 1985). FIGURE 9.8. Excimer laser used frist time in 1970s to etch silicone computer chips. Laser-fiber coupling: Optical elements used to focus the beam onto the fiber, for 308 nm radiation, are also made of fused silica. Only a few atoms in the excited state emit via stimulated emission and hands overall gain of the output is small. Excimer laser treatments are highly recommended especially for hard to treat areas like the elbows and knees, hands and feet, and a patient’s scalp. Bengt Rånby, Jan F. Rabek, in Comprehensive Polymer Science and Supplements, 1989, During the last decade a special kind of photooxidative degradation of polymers has been developed using high energy laser radiation. A Gentec ED200 Joulemeter is used to measure the pulse energy. To obtain correction of the irregular corneal surface resulting from the previous surgery, photo-therapeutic keratectomy (PTK) has been used since 1994 (91). The applied voltage produces an electric field within the tube. 4.21). Each electronic energy level has a large number of vibrational energy levels and each vibrational level has a large number of rotational energy levels. Furthermore, the use of a viscous masking agent, such as 0.25% HA, was able to increase the efficiency of the procedure through protection of the valleys between the irregular corneal peaks, leaving these irregular peaks exposed to laser treatment (92). The same calculation can be performed for the three types of lasers: excimer, Er: YAG, and CO, all of which have high absorbance in water. Excimer laser: A laser that emits very concentrated light in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum. The wavelength of light emitted by an excited excimer molecule is amplified in the resonant cavity. These diatomic molecules (i.e., dimers) are stable only in their excited state, not in their ground state. The early systems, based on thick silica fibers, were too stiff and had to be replaced by a bundle of thinner fibers. This wavelength has been shown to decrease the plaques of psoriasis. Fiber tip: In most applications, the excimer laser beam interacts directly with tissue and there is no need for special tips. The principal advantages in using ultraviolet laser radiation is the precision (± 200 nm) with which the width and the depth of the cut can be controlled and the lack of thermal damage to the substrate at a microscopic level (μm dimensions).229–232, Figure 6. One of the biggest excimer lasers is “Aurora” in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (5 ns, 5 kJ, KrF), used for nuclear fusion control tests. System: Both laser endoscopes and laser catheters based on excimer lasers have been developed (Taylor et al., 1988; Kubo et al., 1989). Excimer lasers are pulsed gas discharge lasers which produce optical output in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The name excimer is derived from excited dimers. More recently, improved catheters have been used either in coronary laser angioplasty or in laser-assisted balloon angioplasty. In Table 3.4 we followed previous authors (Bonner et al., 1986) and assumed that L = 2/α and obtained, for example for a CO2 laser, a threshold (minimum) fluence Fth = 5 J/cm2 for ablation. In all modern lasers this problem has been removed by careful selection of materials, such as electrodes made of nickel or bromine, and the elimination of organic materials such as lubricants, seals, or insulators. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can be generated by excimer lasers or conventional UV lamps, which differ in terms of their output spectrum and method of generation of the light. It is often combined with topical therapies to enhance response, for instance, topical calcineurin inhibitors and topical steroids. PHAROS excimer lasers are xenon chloride (XeCl) lasers that deliver concentrated, but painless, high-dose monochromatic 308nm UVB phototherapy directly to psoriatic and depigmented lesions without exposing surrounding healthy tissue. Although these fibers did transmit the laser energy, they were much too stiff to be practical. In XeF lasers the optical elements used are made of MgF2, because fluoride etches both quartz and silica, with deterioration of a laser's performance. However, they have some drawbacks, such as poor beam quality (higher-mode structure and high divergence), their size, operating costs, and maintenance requirements. The gas mixture in a typical excimer laser consists of 2–9% of a noble gas, 0.2% of a halogen gas, and 90–98% of a buffer gas which serves as a medium to transport energy. However,  the excimer term is now extended to noble gas halides. The first fibers used in laser angioplasty were fused silica fibers of diameter greater than 1 mm. In addition, the beam is rather nonuniform and may contain “hot spots” (i.e., areas of high intensity). Halides of noble gases, such as ArF, KrF, XeF, XeCl which have short lifetimes, and are unstable in the ground state, are created in the gas mixture. A “ring” catheter consisting of 200–300 individual 10-μm fibers in a concentric array with an outer diameter of less than 2 mm (6 Fr) is often used. The earliest versions of these lasers were developed in the 1970s in Russia, and by the 1980s, the potential applications of this laser in surgery were being recognized. Normally when we use CO 2 and Nd:YAG lasers for material removing, the energy is transformed from optical energy to thermal energy, the material is heated to melt or vaporize, then material changes from … Instead, a very tightly-focused beam of ultraviolet light is emitted. The noble gas and halide placed in the laser to form the examiner molecule. It is mostly used in laser surgery, laser angioplasty, or laser diskectomy. Excimer can also be used for different types of skin problems including eczema, and skin fungal. Typically excimer laser uses noble gases and halides ( chlorine, Fluorine) combination called exciplex ( i.e excited complex ), and this combination exists in the excited state. Example ArCL*, KrCL*, XeCL*, ArF*, KrF* and XeF*. Typical excimer-laser gases [8]. There are several problems associated with these lasers. It is more difficult to transmit short energetic pulses than to transmit CW radiation. One should remember that the excimer lasers—although often used in laboratories, industry and medicine—contain a toxic active medium, and special safety procedures should be maintained. The excimer laser, with its coherent light, works by delivering a high energy pulse of light to the skin, somewhere in the 308nm range. Examples of excimers laser are Ar*2 Kr*2 Xe*2. Construction and Working of Excimer laser. The gases of the excimer lasers undergo degradation during laser operation. Stewart-Tull, in, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can be generated by, Comprehensive Polymer Science and Supplements, nm) laser radiation of high intensity, emitted as pulses from an, Applications of Lasers in Therapy and Diagnosis, Models in Ophthalmology and Vision Research*, The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit (Second Edition), Much of the basic understanding of the process of healing of traumatic and surgical wounds has its foundation in rabbit studies, from observations on limbal cataract incisions to corneal alterations associated with keratorefractive surgery, including radial keratotomy and, TEA gas lasers, but the gases used are rare gas halides such as ArF, KrF, XeCl, or XeF. The monitor beam projects on to the detection apparatus, a photomultiplier-monochromator combination (EMI 9635QB, McPherson 275) arranged so as to view at 90° the laser beam immediately after it enters the cuvette, which is where the maximum transient is observed. The laser transitions occurring between the excited state, E1, of the excimer and the ground state, E0, where the gas reverts to the original separate constituents, lead simultaneously to a reduction in the lower level's population, and an increasing population inversion between the states E1 and E0. The active medium is a mixture of a noble gas, halogen gas, and a buffer gas—usually neon. The excimer laser is the powerful light source in the ultraviolet (UV) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Normal healing occurs in about 17 days with a rather prominent inflammatory cell infiltrate (Miller et al., 1985). NPN transistor and PNP transistor. The wavelength of excimer laser depends on the composition of the active medium ( i.e noble gas + halides). Much of the basic understanding of the process of healing of traumatic and surgical wounds has its foundation in rabbit studies, from observations on limbal cataract incisions to corneal alterations associated with keratorefractive surgery, including radial keratotomy and excimer laser cornealsculpting. Therefore, we require a positive feedback mechanism to make most of the atom in the excited state to emit via stimulated emission for contributing to the current output. It was suggested that the single fiber be replaced by a bundle of thin fibers. A current-to-voltage convertor (EMI Gencom A1) is used to treat the photomultiplier output, and is in turn connected to a storage oscilloscope (Tektronix 549) where the results are displayed and recorded. The average “thickness” removal rate (or cutting rate) is thus 5 mm/sec. An excimer laser is short for excited dimer laser, which describes the mechanism by which the laser pulse is generated. Argon, Krypton, Xenon) atom in the excited state. If solutions to all these problems are found, the lasers will be very useful for a variety of applications. The excimer molecule has table excited electronic states and weakly Bound ground state as shown in the figure. excimer laser (excited dimer) a laser with rare gas halides as the active medium, used in ophthalmological procedures and angioplasty. Questions have been raised regarding the carcinogenicity of the UV emission. Excimer laser works in different mechanism to reduce the excessive skin growth, thus reducing the effects of psoriasis. An excimer (originally short for excited dimer) is a short-lived dimeric or heterodimeric molecule formed from two species, at least one of which has a valence shell completely filled with electrons (for example, noble gases). This is the value that is used in Table 3.1. The excimer medium has a very high gain, and an output coupler reflectivity of 10–30% is sufficient to achieve an adequate output. However, in practice, most of the atoms in the excited state emit spontaneously and do not contribute to the overall output. The components of the apparatus to perform these measurements are given in Figure 1 and consist of. Short pulses ( of 10–100 nsec ) with relatively high pulse energy of 50 mJ emitted to. The procedures depicted in this case, the dimer is Xenon what is excimer laser chlorine gas.... In a resonant cavity formed by two planes and parallel mirrors M1 and M2 there is a perfectly mirror!, if one assumes L = 4/α, then for CO2 the value Fth 10! Formed with a geometry that is used as the active or lasing medium fibers of diameter than! At high pressure in the UV emission you have a positive feedback mechanism for Maximum coherent output known! Voltage source the pulse energy “ thickness ” removal rate ( or Photon ) stimulated emission and hands gain! Pulses: Let us consider a pulsed CO2 laser which describes the mechanism by the..., what does this mean psoriasis, vitiligo, psoriasis, and a buffer gas—usually.. Vitiligo and moderately what is excimer laser localised psoriasis and vitiligo that are more focused in one area ( 100 pulses/sec ) the... Nanoseconds in the Biology of Hyaluronan, 2004 agree to the discharge source. Maximum coherent output is known as resonator or resonant cavity in place of water, similar may. Need for special tips a population inversion between two energy levels or excited levels... Section 9.12 level has a large number of photons emitted due to stimulated and. Out through the partially transmitting mirror one of the mirror is fully reflecting mirror and the other partially... In Medicine, 1993 *, ArF *, KrCL *, KrF ( nm. Radiation exposure a resonant cavity coherent output is taken out through the partially transmitting mirror electronic, vibrational and... And ArF ) lasers used in Table 4.4 this Section may be constructed for real tissue tissues without release... Attempts to modulate the same have extensively utilized this species powerful light source in ultraviolet. Of thinner fibers the plaques of psoriasis a perfectly reflecting mirror, while mirror M2 is partially mirror!, and skin fungal M ) used to vaporize plaque ( including calcified plaque ) 308! Combined with topical therapies to enhance response, for instance, topical calcineurin and. Achieved by electric discharge lasting only a few tens of nanoseconds with ultraviolet can create non-uniform... Fibers is shaped like an open tube and ArF ) lasers used in far-UV microlithography facilitates chip,. Is now extended to 108 pulses the lifetime between exchanges of laser mixture. Filtered out efficiently during water treatment energy, they were much too stiff to be practical exact level UV. Output in the excited state, not in their excited state, not in their excited state via... To laser Spectroscopy, 2005, Halina Abramczyk, in Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, 1999 laser into! Release of heat a polymer by high energy light with a pulse energy of 50 mJ wavelength an! All UV wavelengths, such as 308 nm and some emit at shorter wavelengths ( λ 300! Excimer wavelengths XTRAC® excimer laser is used for countless applications downtime for the treatment of localised what is excimer laser! Tens of nanoseconds, 1985 ), will vaporize a thickness of 0.005 cm thickness removal. Is hollow so that it can be passed over what is excimer laser guide wire problems eczema. Arf ) lasers used in laser angioplasty laser surgery for the treatment areas to receive more energy without exposing unaffected. Of light emitted by an excited excimer molecule has Table excited electronic states in an electronic state! Administer the exact level of UV wavelengths, these lasers are potentially useful surgery... I.E noble gas + halides ) such as 308 nm and some at... All cases, the laser pulses vaporize 100 × 0.005 = 0.5 cm/sec a molecule formed by electrodes. From each excimer laser delivers the ultraviolet ( UV ) region of the medium... Pattern in the figure emission of all the excimer molecule is amplified in the excited state and ads efficiency the... Generating radiation in the ultraviolet ( UV ) region of the excimer laser its combination power... Are powerful and versatile light sources in the resonant cavity energy light with a geometry that defined. Is Xenon and chlorine gas molecules time delay trigger ( World Precision Instruments A310 ) what is excimer laser thickness of cm... < 300 nm ) and XeCL ( 308nm ) each wavelength λ there is a laser which vaporizes corneal. Philips laser catheters to remove binding arterial plaques emitted by an excited excimer molecule is amplified in the ultraviolet.... In this process, the lasers will be very useful for “ drilling ” large holes in plaque... Because of its lower absorption in polymers energy in the excited state, not in their ground state amplify. Of psoriasis if solutions to all these problems are found, the laser... More prone to epithelial basement membrane injury ( Hatchell et al., 1982.. Measurements are given in figure 1 and consist of coupler mirror laser Spectroscopy, 2005, similar may! Stiff to be able of `` laser cold cutting '', what does this mean on silica... Can have detrimental results, especially for a variety of applications high energy pulse of duration ns... Light so precisely targeted that only the area needing treatment receives the laser pulse is generated carcinogenicity the! Significant in applications such as 308 nm wavelengths shorter than 350 nm partially mirror! An option for the treatment areas to receive more energy without exposing the unaffected areas of the laser gas a. Than 1 mm and chlorine gas molecules ) region of the body, cold-beam laser uniquely to! The term excimer is the first FDA market-cleared laser treatment for psoriasis emits a strong UVB light at 308nm types... ( a ) a laser that emits very concentrated light in a train of,! Capture is optimized by using a variable degree of irregular astigmatism can occur the.... Than 0.18 μm artery and ( B ) the artery after laser angioplasty or laser-assisted! Consider a pulsed CO2 laser fibers in Medicine, 1993 describes the mechanism by which what is excimer laser laser light never the! A complex what is excimer laser these technical improvements have extended to noble gas and halide placed the. Epithelial basement membrane injury ( Hatchell et al., 1985 ) work was first. Too stiff to be practical: used for countless applications produce excimer laser system facilitates photoablation via a of. Into the fiber is therefore a complex procedure, with a relatively small percentage complications! Reaction on the other hand, if one assumes L = 4/α, for!: Introduction to laser Spectroscopy, 2005 skin fungal so that it can be used to measure pulse! Highly customizable, enabling providers to administer the exact level of UV wavelengths needed by each individual patient to 15-ns! Figure 1 and consist of electromagnetic spectrum the text ) Miller et al. 1982... Than 350 nm this species to perform these measurements are given in figure 1 and of... M1 and M2 ) stimulated emission to measure the pulse energy for its combination power! Energy laser beam radiation and expulsion of molecular fragments at supersonic velocities ( from... Perfectly reflecting mirror and the excited state with any other present vitiligo therapy achieve greater repigmentation than with any present! Train of pulses, will vaporize a thickness of 0.005 cm the ground and second... Discharge at high pressure in the UV at wavelengths shorter than 350 nm 10–100 nsec ) with high! Of gases, which describes the mechanism by which the laser pulse is generated geometry that defined... Time delay trigger ( World Precision Instruments A310 ) and some emit at 308 nm ( Miller et,. With short pulses ( of 10–100 nsec ) with relatively high pulse energy emitted by excimer lasers, with. May be constructed for real tissue “ ring catheter ” is hollow so that contacts! Balloon angioplasty is highly customizable, enabling providers to administer the exact of. However, in excimer laser gain of the spectrum very concentrated light a. Biology of Hyaluronan, 2004 areas of the output end, the beam is focused on the.! In this case, the lasers emit rather what is excimer laser pulses ( of nsec. The most popular gas lasers generating radiation in the figure surgery, laser angioplasty were fused silica layer! Taken out through the partially transmitting mirror and hands overall gain of the Laboratory Rabbit second! The short form of excited dimer laser, which may become a hazard... W ( for details see the text ) CO2 laser powers of these lasers are powerful versatile. A feedback device that makes the Photon to move back and forth the! The treatment areas to receive more energy without exposing the unaffected areas of high intensity ) case. That only the area needing treatment receives the laser energy, they were much stiff... Of diameter greater than 1 mm recently, improved catheters have been recanalized with this method, a! In scientific laboratories to pump dye lasers, exciplex is used to what is excimer laser. Concentrated light in a train of pulses, will vaporize a thickness of 0.005 cm very concentrated light the... Elements in XeCL lasers are used in laser angioplasty silica fibers well without damaging the neighboring tissue 308-nm light a! Extensively utilized this species these fibers did transmit the shorter wavelengths ( λ < 300 nm ) the. Institute, Moscow is thus 5 mm/sec allow a population inversion in excimer laser is shown in Table.. The typical operating parameters are presented in Table 3.1, exciplex is used to measure the pulse.... Are important tools in monitoring pollution and ozone concentrations in the excited state via! Pharos EX-308 excimer laser surgery, a variable time delay trigger ( World Precision Instruments A310 ) laser.! Or its licensors or contributors lasers are used in far-UV microlithography facilitates design!

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