alexios iii of trebizond
The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, which according to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. Other allusions and works set in Trebizond continue into the 20th century. Alexios III was originally named John (Ιωάννης, "Iōannēs"), and took the name Alexios either in memory of his older brother who had died prematurely or of his paternal grandfather, Emperor Alexios II of Trebizond. The city held out for a month before David surrendered on August 15, 1461. The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 diverted the western terminus of the Silk Road north to the Black Sea, and due to its link with their local capital at Tabriz, Trebizond accumulated tremendous wealth under the suzerainty of the Mongols. The Byzantine E…  The ensuing wars saw the Empire of Thessalonica, the imperial government that sprung from Epirus, collapse following conflicts with Nicaea and Bulgaria and the final recapture of Constantinople by the Empire of Nicaea in 1261. , In the relatively limited territory of the kingdom of the Grand Komnenoi (known as the “Empire of Trebizond”) there was enough room for three dioceses: Trebizond, which was the only diocese established far in the past, Cerasous and Rizaion in Lazika, both formed as upgraded bishoprics. Michael Panaretos, Chronicle, ch. Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios III Megas Komnēnos ), (October 5, 1338 ndash; March 20, 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. Alexios III Megas Komnenos (translit, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. Read Wikipedia in Modernized UI. The years 1347–1348 marked the apex of this lawless period. He is perhaps the best-documented ruler of that country, and his reign is distinguished by a number of religious grants and literary creations. The Crimean Principality of Theodoro, an offshoot of Trebizond, lasted another 14 years, falling to the Ottomans in 1475. 243–245, Hewsen, "Armenians on the Black Sea", p. 48. Alexios III now turned his attention to strengthening the frontier against the Turkmen. The Trapezuntine monarchy survived the longest among the Byzantine successor states. As documented by Charitopoulos Evangelos. Andronikos I had been deposed by Isaac II Angelos, while Manuel was blinded (a traditional Byzantine punishment for treason) and died not long after. Geography also defined the southern border of this state: the Pontic Alps served as a barrier first to Seljuk Turks and later to Turkoman marauders, whose predations were reduced to a volume that the emperors could cope with. He was the son of Emperor Manuel III and Gulkhan Eudokia of… … Wikipedia, Alexios I of Trebizond — Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios I Megas Komnēnos ; c. 1182 ndash; February 1, 1222) was Emperor of Trebizond from ruled 1204to 1222. Alexios arrived in Trebizond on December 22, 1349 and was accepted as emperor by the nobility headed by Grand Duke Niketas without opposition. Genealogy for Kaloioannes Angelos Doukas Megas Komnenos, "Alexios III" emperor in Trebizond (1338 - 1390) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. He also secured promises of help from the Turkish emirs of Sinope and Karamania, and from the king and princes of Georgia. Trebizond lasted until 1461 when the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II conquered it after a month-long siege and took its ruler and his family into captivity, marking the final end of the Roman imperial tradition initiated by Augustus 1,488 years previously. With the fall of Trebizond, the last independent remnant of the Byzantine Empire, as well as the Roman Empire from which the Byzantine Empire sprang, was the Empire of Trebizond's offshoot, the Principality of Theodoro. Despite the ravages of the previous decade, Trebizond rebounded during the reign of Alexios III. E.S. He was the eldest son of Manuel Komnenos and of Rusudan … Wikipedia, Alexios III — There have been two rulers called Alexios III:* Alexios III Angelos, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire * Alexios III Megas Komenos, Emperor of Trebizond … Wikipedia, Manuel III of Trebizond — Manuel III Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl III Megas Komnēnos) (December 16, 1364 – March 5, 1417) was Emperor of Trebizond from March 20, 1390 to his death in 1417. It maintained its position as a major trade center and the wealth that came along with it. Its remoteness from Roman capitals gave local rulers the opportunity to advance their own interest. Relations with Venice were patched up, but although Alexios further reduced the dues he collected from the Venetians in 1381, its volume continued to decline.  Another successor to Theodore was Constantine Gabras, whom Niketas describes as ruling Trebizond as a tyrant, and whose actions led Emperor John II Komnenos in 1139 to lead an expedition against him. However, Anthony Bryers has argued against thinking this empire was a wealthy polity, stating that while the income from taxes levied on this trade was "by Byzantine standards" substantial, as much as three quarters of the income of the Emperor came from land "either directly from the imperial estates or indirectly from taxes and tithes from other lands. During his reign Catholic missionaries established a base in Trebizond. Trebizond already had a long history of autonomous rule before it became the center of a small empire in the Late Middle Ages. 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