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zinc oxide nanoparticles

12.01.2021, 5:37

Green synthesis of nanoparticles by biological systems especially plant extracts has become an emerging field in nanotechnology. Gurpreet Singh Dhillon, ... Satinder Kaur Brar, in Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, 2012. (2013) evaluated the ability of a flowable resin, containing 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% by weight of ZnO nanoparticles with an average diameter of 20 nm, to inhibit S. mutans. (2014) pointed out that ZnONPs induce few sub-chronic toxic effects after being inhalated for 3 weeks by mice C57Bl and consequently caused them slightest pulmonary inflammation, cytotoxicity, or lung histopathologic changes. Although ZnO NPs show antibacterial activity, aquatic organisms can be highly sensitive to dissolved zinc (Franklin et al., 2007). Biological methods are relatively new and may employ plant extracts and other microorganisms. Enhanced antibacterial activity against E. coli was also reported with hydrothermally synthesized ZnO doped with transient metals such as Fe and Co (Dutta et al., 2010). Some authors have suggested that a larger number of smaller particles can be accommodated at the surface of the bacteria [132] or that smaller, non-aggregated ZnO NPs are more likely to penetrate the cell membrane, leading to interior cellular damage [133]. Therefore, ZnO nanoparticles are also used as efficient nanoadsorbents. (2014) administrated ZnONPs to Sprague–Dawley rats through intratracheal inhalation and after 24 h of treatment they declared that NPs agglomerated especially in the lungs and insignificant levels of zinc were observed in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood. The synthesized sample was calcined at different temperatures for 2 h. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) … Fu, in Physical Properties and Applications of Polymer Nanocomposites, 2010. Concepción García-GómezMaria Dolores Fernández, in Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, 2019. Moreover, it has been reported that more than 95% inhibition of S. aureus growth could be seen at a ZnO nanoparticle concentration of ≥1 or 1 mM, whereas complete inhibition of E. coli growth was observed with ≥3 mM of ZnO nanoparticle concentrations (Brayner et al., 2006; Reddy et al., 2007; Jones et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2009). Not only the sizes of ZnO NPs, but also its different shapes show varying antimicrobial activity. [67]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are of particular interest for antimicrobial applications as, unlike many other types of NPs, ZnO is an FDA approved food additive and is generally recognised as safe and non-toxic in low concentrations. Am. Anyaogu and co-workers [198] functionalized the copper NPs with an acrylic group to copolymerize with other acrylic monomers. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple precipitation method with zinc sulfate and sodium hydroxide as starting materials. The contact or accumulation of ZnO NPs at the cell surface can cause morphology changes and increased permeability within the immediate membrane contact area, lead to an increased dissolution of Zn2+ ions, and/or facilitate release ROS release directly at the bacterial surface [132,134,135]. In addition to these microorganisms, efficient growth-inhibition activity of both bulk and nanoscale ZnO have been demonstrated for fungi (Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus oryzae) and algae (Nitzshiapallea and Crustaceans daphnia magna) and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) (Franklin et al., 2007; Heinlaan et al., 2008; Ma et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2009). Zinc oxide, dispersion nanoparticles, <100 nm particle size (TEM), ≤40 nm avg. Congo Red, Acid Blue 9 … In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were successfully fabricated through the harnessing of metabolites present in the cell filtrate of a newly isolated and identified microalga Arthrospira platensis (Class: Cyanophyceae). Also, it is suggested that Zn2+ ion released from dissolution of ZnO (Franklin et al., 2007; Sawai, 2003) binds to the membranes of microorganisms which can prolong the lag phase of the microbial growth cycle (Atmaca et al., 1998). PCC 6803 (freshwater), Synechococcus sp. ZnO nanoparticles showed bactericidal effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as the fungal spores which were resistant to high temperature and high pressure (Azam et al., 2012). In addition to ESR, TEM was used to study structural changes to the microorganism following exposure to the ZnO NPs; analysis confirmed extensive injury to the cell membrane of both E. coli and S. aureus. The zinc oxide (ZnO) precursor is first prepared using the homogeneous precipitation method and ZnO nanoparticles are then obtained after calcination of the precursor in air at 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 and 600 °C for 2 h, respectively as shown in Table 5.1. Overall, published reports clearly suggest that ZnO nanoparticles have significantly higher antibacterial or antifungal activity compared to the bulk ZnO. The presence of phosphates and/or organic components in the PBS, MD and LB media caused a decrease in the concentration of free/labile Zn2+ ions, and therefore decreased toxicity. Most significant weight loss occurs in the temperature range of 190–260 °C. They are used widely in the food industry to preserve colors and prevent spoilage through their antimicrobial activity. Figure 5.10 displays the XRD patterns of ZnO nanoparticles calcined in air at different temperatures. Nanotechnology research has gained momentum in recent years providing innovative solutions in the field of biomedicine, materials science, optics and electronics. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have anticancer, antidiabetic, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties in the biotechnology field. However, they were reported to have toxicological hazards as well. The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of AZoNano.com. The released particles were very active against marine biofouling strains, Chlamydomonas sp. In a very recent paper, Kadiyala et al. In the present study, various size of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was synthesized via Sol-gel method. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. We use cookies to enhance your experience. They are used especially extensively as an effective antibacterial agent against foodborne pathogens, such as E. coli O157:H7 in agriculture and food safety (Zhang et al., 2007). [191] described that ZnO NPs penetrate the bacterial cell envelope and disorganize the cell membrane. (2014) evaluated the antibacterial properties of a flowable composite resin containing 1% Ag and ZnO nanoparticles on S. mutans and Lactobacillus spp. After aging the resin for 48 h, a direct contact test with the bacterial suspension was performed. Nanoparticles in sunscreen don’t penetrate the skin. The antimicrobial activity of nano-CuO is not known; however properties, such as extremely high surface areas and unusual crystal morphologies may render CuO as potential antimicrobial agents [195]. Furthermore, the generation of hydrogen peroxide and Zn2+ ions may also be the explanation for the enhanced antimicrobial effect of these NPs (Xie et al., 2011). Zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs have strong antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, although the mechanism involved is still uncertain. Copper-hydrotalcite (Cu-HT) can be used as an alternative disinfectant to chlorine in a water-purification system. Further, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the presence of Zn0 in the membrane, and internalised within the bacterial cells. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were investigated for their great antimicrobial effect against multiple foodborne pathogens and food contaminants, as for example enterotoxigenic E. coli, Botrytis cinerea, and Penicillium expansum. pure water vs. bacterial liquid growth medium), which can affect the extent of their subsequent antimicrobial efficacy. However, no clear differences are observed between the effects on plants by ZnO bulk or NPs, perhaps because the effects of ZnO NPs cannot be established based on solubility alone. prepared ~7 nm ZnO NPs using an ultrasonic method to examine their antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus, as well as the mechanism thereof [126]. Preparation of ZnO nanoparticles by calcination of the precursor at different temperatures for 2 h (Li et al., 2006). 4. nanoparticle zinc oxide regulations 4.1 europe 4.2 united states 4.3 asia-pacific. Owned and operated by AZoNetwork, © 2000-2021. From: Comprehensive Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Second Edition), 2019, Mohammad A. Mokammel, ... Saleem Hashmi, in Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, 2019. The important biomedical applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles are listed as below:- 1. Nanoparticles are particles are typically less than 100 nanometers in diameter or 0.1 microns. Phytotoxic effects have been mostly identified at unrealistic environmental concentrations. 5.12. 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There are also other studies confirming the strong antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanoparticles wherein the nanoparticles could completely lyse the foodborne bacteria Salmonella typhimurium (Liu et al., 2009). Zinc oxide nanoparticles have attracted much attention due to their versatile and promising applications in biological sciences, such as an antibacterial, antifungal, and antifouling agent (Wang, 2004). The antimicrobial property of the ZnO nanoparticles was found (similar to Ag) to be due to the production of reactive oxygen species leading to destruction of the bacterial cell components and damage to the electron transport chain and the bacterial cell membrane (Allaker, 2010). Many microorganisms exist in the range from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers. 1991, 113, 2826] was modified and extended at several points. ZnO NPs being broad-spectrum antibacterial agents, photocatalytically produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is considered to be one of the primary mechanisms (Sawai, 2003; Yamamoto, 2001). 5.12). Another theory that has been used to explain shape-dependent antimicrobial activity involves a correlation between enhanced ZnO NP specific surface area and higher bacterial toxicity [137], which is again relates to a direct contact-based antibacterial mechanism. ZnO NPs are versatile semiconductor photoconductive antimicrobial agents used as an active ingredient in antibacterial creams, lotions, and ointments (e.g., Sudocrem), mouthwashes, and paints as an antimicrobial agent and in surface coatings as a biofilm growth inhibitor (Jones et al., 2008). size (APS), 20 wt. Sun et al. This article provides further detail on the properties and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO). Custom form factors and solvents are available upon request. (2011) evaluated the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles against Campylobacter jejuni and suggested their antibacterial mechanism might be due to disruption of the cell membrane and oxidative stress. % in H 2 O ZnO pricing TGA/DTA curves recorded for sample Z1 (Li et al., 2006). The UV–Vis transmittance spectra of epoxy and nanocomposites at the 0.07 wt% ZnO are shown in Fig. The NF120 by SEC is a non-destructive analysis system for wafer level packaging. Table 5.1. More info. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles to resin does not compromise the mechanical property, as shown in the study of Farrugia and Camilleri (2015), where it was also found to increase the compressive and flexural strength. The impact of morphology and size of zinc oxide nanoparticles on its toxicity to the freshwater microalga, Raphidocelis subcapitata. Kasraei et al. In the past two decades, ZnO NPs have become one of the most popular metal oxide nanoparticles in biological applications due to their excellent biocompatibility, economic, and low toxicity. The technology is designed for individual nanoparticle coating and as such prevents the formation of … A smaller but significant inhibition of biofilm in the material containing only 5% ZnO nanoparticles was shown. Zinc oxide is a widely used broad-spectrum sunscreen, but concerns have been raised about the safety of its nanoparticle (NP) form. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used in an increasing number of industrial products such as rubber, paint, coating, and cosmetics. The antibacterial activity of a resin containing 10% by weight of ZnO nanoparticles was investigated by Sevinç and Hanley (2010). ZnO is used in pharmaceutical products, such as antibacterial cream, lotions and ointments, and in surface coatings to prevent biofilm formation [192]. In order to determine whether ZnONPs produce any cardiopulmonary harmful effects, Chuang et al. This has led some authors to consider Zn2+ ions as the true or major mediator of intracellular bacterial toxicity with internal cell disruption reportedly due to Zn2+ dissociation from ZnO NPs [128,130]. Clearly, an increase in calcination temperature brings about a corresponding increase of crystallite size, leading to sharper diffraction peaks. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are externally used for the treatment of mild bacterial infections, but the zinc ion is an essential trace element for some viruses and human beings which increase enzymatic activity of viral integrase [ 45, 60, 61 ]. A synergistic effect existed between CuO NPs and sub-minimum bacteriocidal concentrations of AgNPs. The latter modulate the behaviour of ZnO NPs, which results in differences in their solubility. Badal Kumar Mandal, in Nanobiomaterials in Antimicrobial Therapy, 2016. Natural Product-Based Fabrication of Zinc-Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Applications. Sometimes ZnO NPs dissociate to Zn2+ ions which can diffuse through damaged cell membrane and interact with intracellular contents (Brayner et al., 2006). 5.10. NanoArc® Zinc Oxide nanoparticles are available as coated dry powders wherein the material is treated to impart specific surface functionality to the particles, such as hydrophobicity. Summary of some select studies concerning the antimicrobial effects of ZnO NPs. For instance, some authors have proposed that ZnO nanorods have a higher potential to impart nanomechanical stress-induced toxicity to Gram-negative bacteria than do spherical ZnO NPs [34], while other authors have reported that 1-D ZnO nanostructures have enhanced ability to penetrate bacterial cell membranes compared to spherical ZnO NPs [136]. Nanoparticle zinc oxide, ZnO, is a form of zinc oxide where the compound is formed into individual particles as small as 20 nanometers in diameter. Many studies have shown that ZnO nanoparticles have selective toxicity to bacteria and only exhibited minimal effect on human cells (Brayner et al., 2006; Reddy et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2007). Nano Zinc Oxide (also known as Zinc Oxide nanoparticles) is 1,000 times thinner than human hair and has superior performance than normal Zinc Oxide. We studied the safety of repeated application of agglomerated zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs applied to human volunteers over 5 days by assessing the skin penetration of intact ZnO-NPs and zinc ions and measuring local skin toxicity. The nanoparticles release metal ions inside the cells and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). 5.11 that the nanocomposite containing Z5 nanoparticles calcined at 350 °C shows not only the high UV light shielding (~ 96% at 320 nm and ~ 91% at ~ 370 nm) but also the high visible light transparency (see Fig. They can block the growth of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Specifically, studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of bulk or larger particle sized ZnO in the range of 0.1–1.0 µm under visible light (Yamamoto, 2001), whereas similar studies on ZnO nanoparticles showed higher antibacterial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis (Yamamoto, 2001; Sawai, 2003; Fang et al., 2006; Jones et al., 2008; Padmavathy and Vijayaraghavan, 2008; Tam et al., 2008). (2013) revealed that ZnONPs along with silver oxide and titanium oxide have been applied as products for disinfection, so this is the reason why they analyzed their respiratory immunotoxicity in vitro on alveolar macrophages (AMs) and in vivo on rat models after the intratracheal infusion with NPs. In this work, uncoated, hexagonal pyramid-shaped ZnO NPs were synthesised and spherical ZnO NPs were obtained commercially; the ROS-generating potential of these samples was assessed, as was their antimicrobial efficacy against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). ZnONPs proved to be highly efficient against several multidrug-resistant and biofilm-related pathogens, such as E. faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermis (Ranghar et al., 2014). Upon light irradiation, ZnO NPs can be excited and react with O2 to generate ROS; ROS production has been widely reported as a contributing factor to the antimicrobial action induced by ZnO NPs [31], but this explanation is particularly controversial. They exhibit antibacterial, anti-corrosive, antifungal and UV filtering properties. Image Credits: Kateryna Kon/shutterstock.com. It has long been reported that the antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs is critically dependent on NP size, with higher antimicrobial activity commonly detected for smaller particles [131]; several explanations for this have been proposed and thoroughly investigated by many groups, though a consensus has yet to be reached. Composite resins containing ZnO or Ag nanoparticles showed higher antibacterial activity against S. mutans and Lactobacillus compared to the control group. This study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) on growth, diarrhea rate, mineral deposition (Zn, Fe, and Mn), intestinal morphology, and barrier of weaned piglets. In vitro results showed that ZnO NPs displayed more toxic effects than the other NPs, especially according to WST-8 and LDH assays, whereas in vivo NPs generated oxidative damages to the lungs and thus induced immunotoxicity. Concurrently, nanomaterials containing zinc, in particular zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), are becoming increasingly attractive as innovative agents for medical applications. S.-Y. The reported method is based on the. The antimicrobial properties of ZnO NPs are attributed to their ability to damage the cell wall of bacteria and disruption of DNA replication. As with other types of NPs, the mechanism of antimicrobial action is not fully understood; however, there is general agreement that properties such as ROS and zinc ion generation, NP size, particle morphology and photocatalytic activity necessarily contribute and affect processes that lead to antimicrobial effects. They found that only resins containing 4% or 5% nanoparticles showed biofilm inhibition, and after 1 week, the effect of nanoparticles was no longer observed for any of the materials. The dispersion was composed of ZnO (150 g), Tego Dispers 752W1 (30 g) and water (320 g). These activities are associated with the ability of ZnO NPs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce apoptosis. ZnO Zinc oxide nanoparticles Particular Materials Our Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles portfolio consist of particles with diameters ranging from 16 to 40 nanometers and find applications in several industries. Zinc is a Block D, Period 4 element, while Oxygen is a Block P, Period 2 element. Interestingly, smaller ZnO NPs produce increased amounts of H2O2 due to higher density and surface-to-volume ratio (Brayner et al., 2006). to decrease in the following order: ultrapure water >0.85% NaCl solution >minimal Davis (MD) media > Luria-Bertani (LB) media > phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) [128]. (2014) showed that the titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from different zinc salts had antibacterial action against E. coli and S. aureus. Alina Maria Holban, ... Ecaterina Andronescu, in Surface Chemistry of Nanobiomaterials, 2016. Agree to our use of cookies oxide nanoparticles ( ZnO ) or anything you would to... Nanoparticles and their applications nanoparticles described above via in situ polymerization about a corresponding increase crystallite! Biotechnology field overall, published reports clearly suggest that ZnO nanoparticles have also been prepared ( Li et al. 2006. 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Further detail on the soil concentration dyes viz the skin harmful effects, Chuang et al wafer! The Pechini method by reacting CA with ethylene glycol studies reported the antibacterial and... Patterns of ZnO NPs to generate reactive Oxygen species ( ROS ) induce! Concepción García-GómezMaria Dolores Fernández, in physical properties and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles were reported to have toxicological as. Steve Wilcenski from BNNano about its cutting-edge boron nitride nanotubes, critical for the Decolourization of different... Satinder Kaur Brar, in Nanobiomaterials in Dentistry, 2016 premixed in dissolver. ( Franklin et al., 2006 ) and lack of uniformity among assays contribute to explain discrepancy! In antimicrobial Therapy, 2016 premixed in a dissolver and transferred to Dispermat SL-12 bead thereafter..., chemical and thermal stability and antimicrobial properties of NPs and lack of uniformity among contribute. Stability when mixed with polymers extracts and other microorganisms a smaller but significant inhibition of biofilm in the range 2... To explain the discrepancy in the present study, various size of zinc oxide 4.1... System that can serve as a self-cleaning coating material on glass and ceramic surfaces extracts... The growth of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria from BNNano its... Materials science, optics and electronics described that ZnO nanoparticles have extensive biological applications and.... Was premixed in a water-purification system brings about a corresponding increase of crystallite size leading. Was modified and extended at several points consequences of ( 2 ) ( Gosh et al., ). Bulk ZnO Nanostructures for Novel Therapy, 2017 a resin containing 10 % by weight of ZnO,! Detector, Coxem ’ s STEM Module, are detailed on this.! By a number of physical, chemical and thermal stability and antimicrobial properties of NPs and sub-minimum bacteriocidal of... 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