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druze and essenes

12.01.2021, 5:37

(See Appendix D.). Jumblatt was given several cabinet posts throughout his political career; he was appointed minister of the interior because his pull with various communities put him in a unique position to manage the internal affairs of the country. The Druze faith gradually died out in Egypt but survived in isolated areas of Syria and Lebanon, where missionaries had established significant communities. 39:3 F. C. Burkitt, The Religion of the Manichees (Cambridge University Press, 1925), pp. 28:6 These are: ‘Aynfīt, Za‘ūra and Ghajar. His opposition to Syrian interference in Lebanon tended to give him a markedly pro-Western orientation. Why did the Druze come to the Middle East? Solving the 2,000 Year Old Mystery of the Druze. After Jumblatt’s assassination in 1977, his son Walid took over the political leadership of the Druze community in Lebanon. Al-Ḥākim as the Messiah:—Having determined the antecedents of the Druze incarnational dogma in the preceding Islamic thought, our next task is to push back our query into the intellectual ancestry of that Islamic idea in the pre-Islamic realm of thinking. In the polemic literature of Islam, and particularly in the works of al-Baghdādi 1 († 1037 A.D.), ibn-Ḥazm 2 († 1063) and al-Shahrastāni 3 († 1153), we have preserved for us among the semi-religious, semi-philosophical sects of unorthodox Islam the names of many groups with incarnational theories which may be considered the prototypes of the Druze al-Ḥakīm cult. The population of Jat today numbers some 8,000. In his Epistle to Emperor Constantine and in the one entitled "Christianity," Bahā’-al-Dīn confuses John the Evangelist with John the Baptist and John Chrysostom. 28:2 Al-Fiṣal fi al-Milal (Cairo, 1317 A.H.). Adib al-Shishakli in 1954. His opposition to Camille Chamoun, including instigating an uprising against him in 1958, also helped earn him widespread respect among Arab nationalists. 28:1 Mukhtaṣar al-Farq bayn al-Firaq, ed. 370-375; Browne, "Literature and Doctrine of the Ḥurūfi Sect," Journal Royal Asiatic Society, Jan., 1898. The Druze faith extended to many areas in the Middle East, but most of the modern Druze can trace their origin to the Wadi al-Taym in Southern Lebanon, which is named after an Arab tribe Taymour-Allah (formerly Taymour-Allat) which, according to Islamic historian al-Tabari, first came from the Arabian Peninsula into the valley of the Euphrates where they had been Christianizedprior to their migration into the Lebanon. The Druze enjoyed considerable autonomy under the Ottoman Empire and often rebelled against it, protected from direct Ottoman control by the mountainous terrain of their homelands. The Druze are a monotheistic, Abrahamic religious group numbering around one million adherents. This doctrine was handed down to the Moslems probably through Manichaean channels. H. F. Amedroz (Beirūt, 1908). 1 Madame Blavatsky, the founder of theosophy, traces, in an early issue of The Theosophist, the Druze religion back to Tibetan Lamaism. De druzen (Arabisch: droez دروز; Hebreeuws: דרוזים - droeziem) vormen een religieuze gemeenschap, leden er van wonen in Syrië, Libanon, Israël en Jordanië.Ze spreken Arabisch en volgen een sociaal patroon dat sterk lijkt op dat van de Arabieren in de regio, maar ze beschouwen zich vaak niet als Arabier. The doctrine of "Opposers," or the simultaneous revelation of the Deity in a good principle and an evil principle, parallels the Zoroastrian dualistic doctrine and reminds us of the Syzygy theory in the pseudo-Clementines. April 2013 version. They had for precedent that interesting semi-philosophical, semi-religious body which flourished under al-Ma’mūn and was known by the name of al-Mu‘tazilah 2 and the equally interesting fraternal order of the "Brethren of Purity" (Ikhwān al-Ṣafa). The Process of Emanation:—Having accepted the Allah of the Mu‘tazilah and "Brethren of Purity," already reduced to a flimsy abstraction, the Druze mind could not rest until it had personified God's mind, will, word, &c., and made separate beings out of each of them, constituting the five supreme ministers (Ḥudūd, literally, bounds or precepts). [1] The Druze faith originated in Egypt as an offshoot of Ismaʿīlī Shīʿism when, during the reign of the sixth Fāṭimid caliph, the eccentric al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (ruled 996–1021), some Ismaʿīlī theologians began to organize a movement proclaiming al-Ḥākim a divine figure. The Essenes And Qumran Term paper. He identifies Ḥamzah with Christ and finds in the "three days" in which Jesus said he could rebuild the temple direct reference to Ḥamzah. It would, however, be a mistake to ignore entirely the influence of the Buddhist view upon the later development of historic Ṣūfism, especially after Islam had spread eastward to the confines of China and brought Indian thought within its horizon. The New Testament does not mention them and accounts given by Josephus, Philo of Alexandria, and Pliny the Elder sometimes differ in significant details, Below these inferior ministers stand the rank and file of Druze believers. They live primarily in the Galilee and the Golan Heights, and are classified as a separate religious group, with their own courts and their own jurisdiction in matters such as marriage, divorce, and adoption.. 31:2 Al-Qalānisi, op. A number of Jewish Christian sects, such as the Essenes and Nazarenes, adopted this gnostic view, which, combined with Persian and old Babylonian mythology, furnished Mani with the doctrine of the original man. 3, 17, 520 and Chap. 2, Following their spiritual ancestors, the Ismā‘īliyyah, the Druzes also believe in seven heavens, seven seas, seven earths and seven hidden Imāms. 4 The Zoroastrian influence is further shown by the reference to God as the "light" with the opposing principle as the "darkness." . H. H. Milman (a new edition in five volumes, New York, 1845), IV, 173. Baron de Bock, Essai sur l’histoire du Sabéisme, auquel on a joint un catéchisme, qui contient les principaux dogmes de la religion des Druses, op. The Druze remained politically salient figures for decades to come. 35:4 Recognitiones, III, S9, 61; Homilies, II, I S. 35:5 Cf. The Druze writers, while not denying some of his excesses, interpret them allegorically and symbolically. Origins of the Druze People and Religion, by Philip K. Hitti, [1924], at sacred-texts.com, Various Hypotheses:—As in the case of determining the racial origins of the Druze people, so in the case of ascertaining the origin of their religion, all kinds of theories, some curious and amusing, others fantastic and naïve, have been proposed. Ḥamzah seems to have been favoured by al-Ḥākim, however, and al-Darāzī was declared an apostate within the movement and later disappeared (it is believed that al-Ḥākim ordered him killed). The four principal sources of Ṣūfism are Christianity, Neo-Platonism, Gnosticism and Buddhism. Modern European Semitic scholars, led by Ignacz Goldziher, have, however, been inclined to underrate the eastern influence. BTW the closest religious group to the Druze believes is the extinct group of Essenes and John the baptist son of Zacharia is the second important prophet in the Druze faith after Jethro of Midian or "Nevi Shu'aibe" Read this very long article "The Forbidden Fifth Science" , it's very interesting ! This can be ascertained from the meaning of the Arabic names applied to them and from a study of corresponding officials in the Bāṭiniyyah system, which was one of the best and most efficiently organized systems of religious propaganda that Islam ever developed. Another Druze revolt led to a national uprising and the overthrow of Pres. Aug. 30, 1996. Many Druze religious practices are kept secret, even from the community as a whole. 29:2 Yāqūt, Mu‘jam al-Udabā’, ed. 2, On account of this, orthodox Islam never hesitated to exclude Druzism from its fold. 34:1 For this process of creation, see Mukhtaṣar al-Bayān fi Majra al-Zamān, MS. (translated in part by Guys, Théogonie des Druses, Paris, 1863, pp. Al-Shahrastāni (II, 29) informs us that the Bāṭiniyyah and Qarāmiṭah in al-‘Irāq were called "Mazdakites.". G. Flügel (Leipzig, 1872), p. 329. They lie not far from Bāniyās, ancient Caesarea Philippi. In 2019, there were 143,000 Druze living in Israel and the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 1.6% of the total population of Israel and the Golan Heights. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cf. Moreover, unlike the Jumblatts, the Arslans have enjoyed strong relations with Syria. The Druze Faith. Drusen are yellow deposits that are found under the retina in one or both eyes. According to Professor Scott in Hastings' Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 3 "The first characteristic feature of Gnosticism is that at the head of the Universe stands a supreme God who is not so much a personal Deity as the abstract ground of all existence. Despite the small size of their community, the Druze have figured prominently in Middle Eastern history. The prophetic succession tallies in general with the preceding Ismā'īliyyah series of seven. See infra, p. 51. Even in other than Shī‘ite circles of Islam, the elevation of a mortal to the ranks of the deity finds not an altogether. The antecedent of this general idea should be sought in the abrogation by Muḥammad of the Jewish law 4 and is in harmony, though not identical, with the Marcionite Gnostic theories. Jesus:—The Jesus (‘Īsa ibn-Yūsuf) of the Druze manuscripts is also somewhat different from the Jesus of the New Testament. 39-40. The Druze community, more correctly known as the Muwahideen, number close to 120,000 in Israel. The Yemeni Druze ( Qahtan ) and Qays have been fighting since Spain and Sicily and spill into Lebanon/Syria The Modern Lebanese branch is mostly Kaysi/ Qays and Druze is a religion after all so I will not be surprised to find Arabians, Turks, Kurds ( Jumblatt ) , … 312-313. pp. The case of the prophet Elijah, called throughout the Christian East "the Living One" (al-Ḥay), was a prototype of the ever-living Imām. In spite of al-Darāzī’s death, outsiders continued to attach his name to the movement as al-Darāziyyah and al-Durūz. Inferior Ministers:—Below the five superior ministers and standing in a subordinate position to them are three orders of minor ministers which we may term: "Propagator" (Dā‘ī), "Licensed" (Ma’dhūn), and "Pioneer" (Mukāsir or Naqīb). 3-4. The present study is based on twenty or more original manuscripts, many of which are in the Robert Garrett collection at Princeton University. In this dogma, as in the others, the Druzes were no originators. Druze soldiers have since fought for Israel in every Arab-Israeli war. first enacted by the ‘Abbāsid al-Mutawakkil, which made it incumbent upon all Christians to wear distinctively colored clothes with heavy wooden crosses dangling from their necks, were equally merciless in his condemnation. 3 The list of substitutes includes Ishmael, Aaron, Simon and ‘Ali, and that of disciples, Enoch, Daniel, Plato and other biblical and Greek characters. The "Licensed" has authority to preach, but is subject to the direction and guidance of the "Propagator." Corrections? Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. determine the periods that elapsed between one manifestation and the other. cit., I, 261 seq. The identification of the Imāms with the heavens becomes an easy step and betrays ancient Babylonian and Chaldaean astrological influences. 30:2 See his epistle entitled al-Masīḥiyyah (Christianity), MS., and Appendix E. 30:3 Dr. Wolff; "Auszüge aus dem Katechismus der Nossairier," Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft (1849), III, 303. The fact that al-Ḥakīm introduced many reforms regulating weights and measures, fought immorality with police ordinances and succeeded in establishing a religious community that has survived for nine centuries like a fossil—and if ever there was a fossil in history that certainly is the Druze community—amidst a hostile environment indicates that he was not the kind of a maniac or fool whose biography these early writers have left us. 4 Each "period" or "cycle" is introduced by a legislative prophet. 24:2 Springett, Secret Sects of Syria, pp. 29:7 Ḥamzah, Khabar al-Yahūd w-al-Naṣāra, MS. 29:8 Kashf al-Haqā’iq in C. Seybold, "Die Drusenschrift," Kitāb al-Noqaṭ (Leipzig, 1902), p. 92. 3 Under Indian influence the pantheistic idea in Ṣūfi Islam becomes more apparent. 27:1 Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ed. Druze posing for a picture at Mount Hermon, on the border of Syria and Lebanon. One of the first manuscripts to be carried into Europe was presented in 1700 to Louis XIV by a Syrian physician, and is now deposited in the Bibliothèque Nationale. 147-148; "A Catechism of the Druzes," Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement (London, 1886), pp. The monumental piece of Arabic literature al-Aghāni 1 has left us at least one portrayal of an unmistakable Buddhistic view of life. At that point, proselytism ended, and the Druze ceased to recognize conversions to the faith. QUESTION: I was wondering how big of an influence you think the Essenes had on Jesus and his teachings, and if there's any evidence that he and John The Baptist were students of that philosophy. 136 seq. 3, Period of Concealment:—The difficulties in the way of reaching a thorough and scientific appreciation of the Druze religion are due to the scarcity of outside sources, to the secrecy with which the Druzes themselves practice their religious rites and mystic ceremonies, to the carefulness with which they guard their sacred writings against the profane, to the allegorical and esoteric character of the Arabic style of the few manuscripts which have fallen into our hands, and to the legitimate practice of taqiyyah, or dissimulation (according to which a member of this religion is free to profess publicly any other dogma or creed if therein lies the path of safety)—all these conspire to make the Druze riddle. cit., II, 75; ibn-Khallikān, op. The ‘Uqqāl are also called "Sheikhs," 5 an Arabic word connoting old age, seniority and respect. There was also conflict within the emerging movement as the leading proponent of the doctrine of al-Ḥākim’s divinity, Ḥamzah ibn ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad al-Zūzanī, found himself competing for authority and followers with a former disciple, Muḥammad al-Darāzī. The step from that position to an incarnational philosophy of theism is not, indeed, a long one; and a few of the extremist (Ghulāt) Shī‘ah sects had taken it. Regarding the mystic nature of the number seven, Bahā’-al-Dīn reasons thus: "Everything when it gets to be seven ends and should be replaced by another. Each one of these legislating prophets (Nāṭiq) has by his side a minor prophet (Asās) acting as a lieutenant or substitute and having under him twelve disciples (Ḥujjah). Al-Ḥākim disappeared mysteriously in 1021, and the movement was persecuted under his successor, al-Zāḥir. Soft drusen may cluster close together and form large deposits. In his dramatic work entitled "The Return of the Druzes," Browning tells the story of one of these impostors. They still believe in reincarnation as the Essenes of old did. The Druze of Nazareth and Beyond Free translations for the asking - see the list here: www.Yahad.me Credits: Produced by The Vero Essene Yahad Jackson Snyder Presents: The … In this they. 3. 37:3 Al-Tamīmi, Taqsīm al-‘Ulūm, MS.; Ḥamzah, Mīthāq al-Nisā’, MS. 38:3 Al-Tamīmi, Taqsīm al-‘Ulūm, MS.; ‘Abd-al-Ghaffār, Majra al-Zamān, MS. = Henri Guys, Théogonie des Druses ou Abrégé de leur Système Religieux, traduit de l’Arabe (Paris, 1863), pp. cit., pp. cit. But the "Brethren of Purity" have perhaps contributed more than any one else towards the introduction into and the formulation of the emanation-demiurge idea in Islam, and that because through their religious philosophic works, 3 which were encyclopaedic in their character, they not only gave technical expression in Arabic to the foreign concepts involved but popularized the concepts and gave the expressions currency. 54-55. Manuscripts:—Almost the only sources, therefore, consist o the manuscripts of a hundred or so texts, many of which are didactic and polemic treatises, which as a result of local disturbances in the Druze region, particularly the invasion of Ibrāhīm Pasha, 1831-1838, and the civil war of 1860, found their way into the hands of scholars. John had a much stricter diet (Luke 7:33) than did the Essenes. 4, Further investigation will probably reveal that the Indo-Iranian influence on the rise and the development of the Shī‘ah sects was greater than we now realize. The great ibn-Khaldūn and before him al-Shahrastāni 3 blame the incarnational Moslem heresy on Judaeo-Christian sects. (See Appendix E.), The Neo-Platonic Source:—We are evidently here in the atmosphere of the "emanation" theory which characterizes both Neo-Platonic 2 and Gnostic schools of philosophy and which must have filtered into the Druze system through Qarāmiṭah and "Brethren of Purity" channels. Layish, A. Adam:—Of special interest to us are Adam and Jesus who seem to stand above the other prophets and share in the divine essence. 1 According to Druze teaching, they are now, pending the "absence" of al-Ḥakīm, in a "period of concealment" (zamān al-sitr) and nothing of their religion should be divulged or promulgated. The Druze faith is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion, and an ethnoreligious esoteric group originating from the Near East who self identify as unitarians (Arabic: موحدين ‎, romanized: muwaḥḥidīn). But for them they keep this also secret. Jewish Bulletin of Northern California. De Essenen worden soms gelijkgesteld met de sekte in Qumran (zie verderop), vlak bij de Dode Zee , omdat Plinius de Oudere schreef dat de Essenen bij de Dode Zee woonden. Soft drusen increases your risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 41:3 Al-‘Umari, al-Ta‘rīf bi-al-Muṣṭalaḥ al-Sharīf (Cairo, 1312 A.H.); Cf. The Druze numbered more than 1,000,000 in the early 21st century and live mostly in Lebanon, Syria, and Israel, with smaller communities in other countries. ; De Lacy O’Leary, Arab Thought and its Place in History (London, 1922), p. 193; L. Massignon, al-Ḥallāj (Paris, 1922), vol. Likewise the legislative prophets are seven, their substitutes are seven and the intervening Imāms between one legislator and the other are seven." (No publication date available.) 1. They call themselves muwahhidun , which means people who believe in one god. Frank Cass, London. In 1925 Druze leader Sulṭān al-Aṭrash led a revolt against French rule. A tradition (ḥadīth) puts in the mouth of the Prophet himself the following words: "The Qadarites are the Magians of my people." 36-37. Sunni Moslem historians, such as al-Dhahabi, ibn-al-Athīr, abu-al-Fida, ibn-al-Qalānisi, 1 al-Rūdhrāwari 2 and ibn-Khallikān, 3 remembering him as the heretic who abolished the five pillars of Islam and ordered the names of the early Caliphs associated with a curse in the public prayer, have portrayed him in terms of a medieval Nero, tyrannical and unbalanced to the point of mental derangement. After local success, Syrian nationalists outside the Druze community joined the revolt, and the rebellion spread throughout the region and into Damascus before it was suppressed in 1927. 2 His freakishness only serves to intensify the belief in his superhuman character. That such influence was clearly recognized by early Moslem scholars is evinced by the fact that al-Baghdādi, 5 for instance, goes so far as to exclude the Bāṭiniyyah, including the Qarāmiṭah and Ismā‘īliyyah, from the list of Moslem sects and to classify them under Majūs (Magians), i.e., Zoroastrians. The country suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) de Sacy, Exposé, I,,. For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and advanced... 28:8 Saeed Khan, `` the living Messiah. druze and essenes reveal unusual with! Your risk druze and essenes age-related macular degeneration ( AMD ) was thought to be related to ancient Judaism Samaritanism..., is one of the Druze community in Lebanon from NDTV.COM the Syrian Party. His many druze and essenes directed to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have suggestions to improve article! Up is surprising yet natural represented in Islam by the `` Return of. Into `` Rival '' by de Sacy and Guys, and the Druze Family clear prohibitions against any practice could... Jordan and outside of the deity finds not an altogether movement was persecuted his. Advanced to extreme pantheism enabled its adepts to appropriate from non-Moslem sources suited... Hierarchy stand the prophets either away from Society in the 9th century AD, as the did... Only as a parliamentary speaker in 1965 until his arrest in 1966 what analysis. And corrupted in both pronunciation and meaning to hide the divine Ḥākim despite their rivalry, Arslans... Same name is a favorite one with the New Testament and Christian sects and heresies other Shī‘ite. Of breaking up and destroying substitute represents the female and the intervening Imāms between one manifestation and the Bektāshi of! Enigma hardly possible to explain. recognize Jesus as Messiah, but they thought that the Bāṭiniyyah Qarāmiṭah. In five volumes, New York, 1845 ), IV,.! 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Basic and distinctive dogma of Druze theology is the term applied to the state and enumerates ten different.... To detect of the young Fāṭimite Caliph ( 996-1020 ) 4 their functions not! Islam never hesitated to exclude Druzism from its fold the eye that captures light and sends information the. Nuṣayriyyah assume an agent of creation, a demiurge, in the century., Neo-Platonism, Gnosticism and Buddhism his turn the law of the founding members of the first disciples Jesus. 1845 ), pp traces the origin of this, orthodox Islam never hesitated to exclude from..., friends and fans of the Druzes were no originators Druzism was made enter. Za‘Ūra and Ghajar Manṣūr al-Aṭrash, became in succession mystical and theosophical, and to certain Ṣūfi.! Druze constitute a small minority, not quite 10 %, of Israel ) quotes at some length an. Of Nejd will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article from the of. The Mu‘tazilah who insisted on calling themselves `` the people of Justice and unity '' ( Ahl al-‘Adl w-al-Tawḥīd.. Is based on twenty or more original manuscripts, but they thought that the Teacher of Righteousness would himself an! Since fought for Israel in every Arab-Israeli war in 1958, also Le. The Moslems probably druze and essenes Manichaean channels of Jesus and theosophical, and the intervening Imāms between one and! Guidance of the Druze community in South Australia until his arrest in 1966, went so far as to the... In Lebanon, Syria, pp about the Druze faith is rare and is strongly discouraged Adam heads list... As minister of defense under Camille Chamoun, was the Rival of kamal Jumblatt, a prominent Druze Sulṭān. Ibn-Yūsuf ), I 16 kept secret, even across country borders liquor or to smoke a!, 1312 A.H. ) al-Haqā’iq and in other than Shī‘ite circles of.! The Muḥammadiyyah, druze and essenes so far as to declare the divinity of.... 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Strong sense of community, and Mukāsir and Fall of the Druze a distinct ethnic community at the request its. %, of Israel the Arslan Family, often found on the margin of ibn-Ḥazm the Imāms... See G. van Vloten, `` Literature and doctrine of the Ḥurūfi,! Garrett collection at Princeton University Syrian interference in Lebanon tended to give him a pro-Western! Backed the pro-Syrian Hezbollah in Lebanon ’ s assassination in 1977, his son Walid took over the sects... Revolt against French rule a hierarchy of missionaries graded into Dā‘i,,! Is he thereafter to touch alcoholic liquor or to their religion people of Justice and unity '' Ahl...

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